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Together with oils, fats comprise one of the three principal classes of foodstuffs, the others being proteins and carbohydrates.

Nearly all cells contain these basic substances. It is probably as storehouses or depots of concentrated energy that fats appear in plant reproductive organs, such as pollen grains and seeds.

It is this fat that humans recover from plants for use as food or in industry. The fat content of the nonreproductive tissue of plants is usually so low that recovery is impracticable.

Yet much dietary fat comes from natural foodstuffs without being separated from the other plant materials with which it occurs.

The proportion of fat in these foodstuffs varies from 0. More than 90 percent of the fat recovered in the world is obtained from about 20 species of plants and animals.

Most of this separated fat is used eventually as human food. Consequently, fat technology deals largely with the separation and processing of fats into forms acceptable to the various dietary customs in the countries in which they are to be used.

For further information on the subject, see food processing. The oil and fat products used for edible purposes can be divided into two distinct classes: The physical nature of the fatty material is unimportant….

Humans have used many natural fats for both food and nonfood purposes since prehistoric times. The Egyptians, for example, used olive oil as a lubricant in moving heavy building materials.

They also made axle greases from fat and lime, mixed with other materials, as early as bce. Homer mentions oil as an aid to weaving, and Pliny talks about hard and soft soaps.

Candles and lamps using oil or tallow have been used for thousands of years. The commercial uses of fats have increased in number as the understanding of the chemical nature of fats has expanded.

A few years later the separation of liquid acids from solid acids was accomplished. The modern hydrogenation process had its origin in research in the late 19th century that led to the establishment of the vegetable-oil-shortening industry and a variety of industrial applications.

After World War I , organic chemists gained extensive knowledge first of fatty-acid compositions and then of glyceride compositions. Growth of the chemical industry stimulated a simultaneous expansion of the use of fats as raw materials and as intermediates for scores of new chemicals.

The modern application of many organic chemical reactions to fats and fatty acids formed the foundation of a new and rapidly growing fatty-chemicals industry.

The universal distribution of fats in plant and animal tissues suggests physiological roles that go beyond their function as a fuel supply for the cells.

In animals the most evident function of fats is that of a food reserve to supply energy through subsequent enzymatic oxidation—that is, combination with oxygen catalyzed by enzymes.

The storage of fat in vegetable seeds can be explained similarly on the basis that it is a food reserve for the embryo.

It is not so easy, however, to account for the presence of large quantities of fat in such fruits as olives, avocados, and palms; much of this fat is probably lost or destroyed before the seed germinates.

Fats fulfill other valuable functions in plants and animals. Subcutaneous deposits of fat insulate animals against cold because of the low rate of heat transfer in fat, a property especially important for animals living in cold waters or climates—e.

Fats that have been separated from tissues always contain small quantities of closely associated nonglyceride lipids such as phospholipids, sterols, vitamins A, D, and E, and various carotenoid pigments.

Many of these substances are vital emulsifying agents or growth factors. Others function as agents that prevent deterioration of fats in plant tissues and seeds caused by destructive combination with oxygen.

These minor constituents probably are present in the fats as a result of their physical solubility, and thus fats serve as carriers for these substances in animal diets.

Many animals require some fat containing one or more of the essential fatty acids linoleic , arachidonic , and to a limited extent linolenic to prevent the physical symptoms of essential-fatty-acid deficiency manifested by skin lesions, scaliness, poor hair growth, and low growth rates.

These essential fatty acids must be supplied in the diet since they cannot be synthesized in the body. The prostaglandins , discovered by the Nobel laureate U.

These biologically active fatty acids, which are present in very minute quantities in animal tissues, apparently are involved in contraction of smooth muscles, enzyme activity in lipid metabolism, function of the central nervous system , regulation of pulse rate and blood pressure , function of steroid hormones, fat mobilization in adipose tissue , and a number of other vital functions.

Formation of fats in seeds and fruits occurs late in the ripening process. Sugars and starches predominate in fruits, seeds, and sap in the unripe condition.

These apparently are converted by enzymes during the maturing process to fatty acids and glycerol, which then form glycerides.

Studies with radioactive-tracer techniques confirm the synthesis of fats from carbohydrates in both plants and animals. In fact, it has been shown by the use of labeled acetic acid , or acetate, ions that any food source from which acetate ions may form as an intermediate metabolite can be converted to fatty acids in at least some animal tissues.

It has been further demonstrated that acetate can be converted to cholesterol in animal tissue. It is noteworthy that, almost without exception, natural fats contain only fatty acids with an even number of carbon atoms.

These acids apparently are built up of two-carbon units. Although the preponderance of fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms has suggested the hypothesis that fats are derived from three molecules of glucose a carbohydrate with six carbon atoms , later discoveries through tracer studies have indicated the buildup from the two-carbon acetate units.

Since acetate can be formed from fats, proteins, or carbohydrates by reaction with oxygen, it is thus possible for fats to be synthesized indirectly from any of these sources.

The formation of multiple linkages between carbon atoms double bonds in the fats synthesized from acetate is accomplished probably in the liver by addition or removal of hydrogen atoms through the action of enzymes.

Utilization of stored fat by plant embryos has not been entirely explained, but it is known that in germinating embryos the glycerides are hydrolyzed—that is, decomposed to glycerol and fatty acids—by lipolytic fat-splitting enzymes.

These may pass through oxidative processes to form intermediate metabolic products that can be oxidized further to carbon dioxide and water or can be converted to carbohydrates, which may then pass through the many steps of carbohydrate metabolism.

In animal digestive tracts, the fats in foods are emulsified with digestive secretions containing lipase , an enzyme that hydrolyzes at least part of the glycerides.

The glycerol, partial glycerol esters, fatty acids, and some glycerides are then absorbed through the intestine and are at least partially recombined to form glycerides and phospholipids.

The fat, in the form of microscopic droplets, is transported in the blood to points of use or storage. The fat of an individual animal may vary somewhat according to the composition of fats in the food.

Fats used by or stored in animal tissues come from two sources—enzymatic synthesis and diet. The fat synthesized from carbohydrates intermediates followed by enzymatic resynthesis to form the fat characteristic of the animal, but some dietary fatty acids are absorbed directly and recombined in the body fat.

The manner in which fat reserves are circulated to the organs where metabolism occurs is incompletely understood. Radioactive-tracer studies provide some insight into this complicated process.

It has long been established that when mobilization of reserve fat takes place the stream is directed primarily to the liver , where fatty acids may be partially desaturated; i.

There are many different kinds of fats, but each is a variation on the same chemical structure. All fats are derivatives of fatty acids and glycerol.

Most fats are glycerides , particularly triglycerides triesters of glycerol. One chain of fatty acid is bonded to each of the three -OH groups of the glycerol by the reaction of the carboxyl end of the fatty acid -COOH with the alcohol; I.

Water is eliminated and the carbons are linked by an -O- bond through dehydration synthesis. This process is called esterification and fats are therefore esters.

As a simple visual illustration, if the kinks and angles of these chains were straightened out, the molecule would have the shape of a capital letter E.

The fatty acids would each be a horizontal line; the glycerol "backbone" would be the vertical line that joins the horizontal lines.

Fats therefore have "ester" bonds. The properties of any specific fat molecule depend on the particular fatty acids that constitute it.

Fatty acids form a family of compounds that are composed of increasing numbers of carbon atoms linked into a zig-zag chain hydrogen atoms to the side.

The more carbon atoms there are in any fatty acid, the longer its chain will be. Long chains are more susceptible to intermolecular forces of attraction in this case, van der Waals forces , and so the longer ones melt at a higher temperature melting point.

Any of these aliphatic fatty acid chains may be glycerated and the resultant fats may have tails of different lengths from very short triformin to very long, e.

Long chain fats are exemplified by tallow lard whose chains are 17 carbons long. Most fats found in food, whether vegetable or animal, are made up of medium to long-chain fatty acids, usually of equal or nearly equal length.

Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this energy. In particular, heart and skeletal muscle prefer fatty acids.

Despite long-standing assertions to the contrary, fatty acids can also be used as a source of fuel for brain cells. Fats are also sources of essential fatty acids , an important dietary requirement.

They provide energy as noted above. Vitamins A , D , E , and K are fat-soluble, meaning they can only be digested, absorbed, and transported in conjunction with fats.

Fats play a vital role in maintaining healthy skin and hair , insulating body organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, and promoting healthy cell function.

Fat also serves as a useful buffer against a host of diseases. When a particular substance, whether chemical or biotic, reaches unsafe levels in the bloodstream, the body can effectively dilute—or at least maintain equilibrium of—the offending substances by storing it in new fat tissue.

This helps to protect vital organs, until such time as the offending substances can be metabolized or removed from the body by such means as excretion , urination , accidental or intentional bloodletting , sebum excretion, and hair growth.

In animals, adipose tissue , or fatty tissue is the body's means of storing metabolic energy over extended periods of time.

Adipocytes fat cells store fat derived from the diet and from liver metabolism. Under energy stress these cells may degrade their stored fat to supply fatty acids and also glycerol to the circulation.

These metabolic activities are regulated by several hormones e. Adipose tissue also secretes the hormone leptin. The location of the tissue determines its metabolic profile: Visceral fat was recently discovered to be a significant producer of signaling chemicals i.

One of these is resistin which has been linked to obesity, insulin resistance , and Type 2 diabetes. This latter result is currently controversial, and there have been reputable studies supporting all sides on the issue.

Dietary consumption of fatty acids has effects on human health. Studies have found that replacing saturated fats with cis unsaturated fats in the diet reduces risk of cardiovascular disease.

For example, a systematic review of randomized control trials by the Cochrane Library concluded: Numerous studies have also found that consumption of trans fats increases risk of cardiovascular disease.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 November This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.

This article is about the type of nutrient in food. For fat in humans and animals, see Adipose tissue. For other uses, see Fat disambiguation.

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In his later years, he inclined to fat. Compare lean 2 def A fat chance he has of winning the title! A fat lot they care about anyone else's troubles!

Now that they have been given an ultimatum, the fat is in the fire. Related Words for fat bulky , obese , inflated , bulging , hefty , large , chunky , big , heavy , meaty , plump , fatty , greasy , lucrative , flesh , grease , lard , gross , bull , solid.

Historical Examples of fat There—do you see that fat man that's just going out—him as has got on the Indy 'ankycher?

Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, No. Way of the Lawless Max Brand. Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol.

They are present in some plants and in the adipose tissue of animals, forming a reserve energy source, and are used in making soap and paint and in the food industry See also oil def.

Any of various soft, solid, or semisolid organic compounds constituting the esters of glycerol and fatty acids and their associated organic groups.

A mixture of such compounds occurring widely in organic tissue, especially in the adipose tissue of animals and in the seeds, nuts, and fruits of plants.

Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. Any of a large number of oily compounds that are widely found in plant and animal tissues and serve mainly as a reserve source of energy.

In mammals, fat, or adipose tissue , is deposited beneath the skin and around the internal organs, where it also protects and insulates against heat loss.

Fat is a necessary, efficient source of energy. An ounce of fat contains more than twice as much stored energy as does an ounce of protein or carbohydrates and is digested more slowly, resulting in the sensation of satiety after eating.

It also enhances the taste, aroma, and texture of food. Fats are made chiefly of triglycerides, each molecule of which contains three fatty acids.

Dietary fat supplies humans with essential fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and linolenic acid. To make vegetable shortening, then, liquid cis -unsaturated fats such as vegetable oils are hydrogenated to produce saturated fats, which have more desirable physical properties e.

However, trans fats are generated during hydrogenation as contaminants created by an unwanted side reaction on the catalyst during partial hydrogenation.

Saturated fats can stack themselves in a closely packed arrangement, so they can solidify easily and are typically solid at room temperature.

For example, animal fats tallow and lard are high in saturated fatty acid content and are solids. Olive and linseed oils on the other hand are unsaturated and liquid.

Fats serve both as energy sources for the body, and as stores for energy in excess of what the body needs immediately.

Glycerol itself can be converted to glucose by the liver and so become a source of energy. There are many different kinds of fats, but each is a variation on the same chemical structure.

All fats are derivatives of fatty acids and glycerol. Most fats are glycerides , particularly triglycerides triesters of glycerol. One chain of fatty acid is bonded to each of the three -OH groups of the glycerol by the reaction of the carboxyl end of the fatty acid -COOH with the alcohol; I.

Water is eliminated and the carbons are linked by an -O- bond through dehydration synthesis. This process is called esterification and fats are therefore esters.

As a simple visual illustration, if the kinks and angles of these chains were straightened out, the molecule would have the shape of a capital letter E.

The fatty acids would each be a horizontal line; the glycerol "backbone" would be the vertical line that joins the horizontal lines.

Fats therefore have "ester" bonds. The properties of any specific fat molecule depend on the particular fatty acids that constitute it.

Fatty acids form a family of compounds that are composed of increasing numbers of carbon atoms linked into a zig-zag chain hydrogen atoms to the side.

The more carbon atoms there are in any fatty acid, the longer its chain will be. Long chains are more susceptible to intermolecular forces of attraction in this case, van der Waals forces , and so the longer ones melt at a higher temperature melting point.

Any of these aliphatic fatty acid chains may be glycerated and the resultant fats may have tails of different lengths from very short triformin to very long, e.

Long chain fats are exemplified by tallow lard whose chains are 17 carbons long. Most fats found in food, whether vegetable or animal, are made up of medium to long-chain fatty acids, usually of equal or nearly equal length.

Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this energy. In particular, heart and skeletal muscle prefer fatty acids.

Despite long-standing assertions to the contrary, fatty acids can also be used as a source of fuel for brain cells. Fats are also sources of essential fatty acids , an important dietary requirement.

They provide energy as noted above. Vitamins A , D , E , and K are fat-soluble, meaning they can only be digested, absorbed, and transported in conjunction with fats.

Fats play a vital role in maintaining healthy skin and hair , insulating body organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, and promoting healthy cell function.

Fat also serves as a useful buffer against a host of diseases. When a particular substance, whether chemical or biotic, reaches unsafe levels in the bloodstream, the body can effectively dilute—or at least maintain equilibrium of—the offending substances by storing it in new fat tissue.

This helps to protect vital organs, until such time as the offending substances can be metabolized or removed from the body by such means as excretion , urination , accidental or intentional bloodletting , sebum excretion, and hair growth.

In animals, adipose tissue , or fatty tissue is the body's means of storing metabolic energy over extended periods of time.

Adipocytes fat cells store fat derived from the diet and from liver metabolism. Under energy stress these cells may degrade their stored fat to supply fatty acids and also glycerol to the circulation.

These metabolic activities are regulated by several hormones e. Adipose tissue also secretes the hormone leptin. The location of the tissue determines its metabolic profile: Visceral fat was recently discovered to be a significant producer of signaling chemicals i.

One of these is resistin which has been linked to obesity, insulin resistance , and Type 2 diabetes. This latter result is currently controversial, and there have been reputable studies supporting all sides on the issue.

Dietary consumption of fatty acids has effects on human health. Studies have found that replacing saturated fats with cis unsaturated fats in the diet reduces risk of cardiovascular disease.

For example, a systematic review of randomized control trials by the Cochrane Library concluded: Numerous studies have also found that consumption of trans fats increases risk of cardiovascular disease.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 November

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